Gender Concepts

This includes all forms of violence that take place in and around colleges, campuses, and demonstration sites, including gender-based violence and sexual harassment.

Gender is a broad term that refers to the roles, behaviors, and attributes that any given society associates with femininity and masculinity. Gender is considered a socially constructed relation, with characteristics that are learned through socialization and that change over time. The terms male and female refer to biological sex, and the terms girl, boy, woman and man refer to dominant gender identities.

Is any undesirable act involving men and women, in which one sex (usually the women) are victims of physical, sexual and psychological harm, and the other (usually the male) are the perpetrators of the violent acts. These include intimidation, suffering coercion and/or deprivation of liberty within the family, or within the general community.

Gender norms are the social standards and expectations about how men and women should be and act. These rules are learned and often internalized early in life. These ideas are often so normalized that many people either are not consciously aware of them or consider them to be natural. Gender norms form the basis of stereotypes about gender identity in a particular society, culture, and community at any given point in time.

These are simplistic generalizations about the gender attributes, differences, and roles of women and men. Stereotypical ideas about men and women often reinforce the idea that women are inferior or less capable than men and are often used to justify gender discrimination. Stereotypes about men and women can be perpetuated through a variety of forms, including songs, advertising, stories, traditional proverbs, radio and television, as well as in theories, laws, and institutional practices.

Any type of violence committed by a current or former partner (spouse, girlfriend, boyfriend) in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner.

According to UNESCO (2015): 

a. an expression of stereotypes based on gender and gender inequalities in all of our societies 

b. includes all types of violence or threat of violence directed specifically against pupils because of their gender and/or affecting girls and boys disproportionately, as the case may be; 

c. may be of a physical, sexual or psychological nature and may take the form of intimidation, punishment, ostracism, corporal punishment, bullying, humiliation, degrading treatment, harassment and sexual abuse and exploitation; 

d. may be inflicted by pupils, teachers or members of the educational community and may occur: within the school grounds; in its outbuildings; on the way to school; or even beyond, during extracurricular activities or through the increasingly widespread use of ICTs (cyber-bullying, sexual harassment via mobile phones and so forth); 

e. may have serious long-term consequences, such as: loss of self-confidence, self-deprecation, deterioration of physical and mental health, early and unintended pregnancies, depression, poor academic results, absenteeism, dropout, development of aggressive behavior and so forth.

Sex refers to physical and biological characteristics and anatomy, including hormones, chromosomes, internal and external genitalia, including sexual reproductive systems. The terms male and female refer to biological sex.

It is unwanted sexual attention that intrudes on a person’s integrity. This includes requests for sexual favors, unwelcome or demeaning remarks, gestures or forcing. It is a form of discrimination and is about an abuse of power.

This includes physical and psychological forms of violence that use sexual acts or attempted sexual acts, regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and survivor, including sexual assault, rape, intimate partner violence, and all forms of unwanted sexual contact.

This term includes both sex work (sex as paid work) as well as sex for other forms of exchange (gifts or services such as food, clothing, phone credit, alcohol or drugs, higher grades, school tuition, and rides). It does not necessarily involve a predetermined payment or gift but is often motivated by some form of material benefit and is often associated with gender inequalities in relation to poverty.

a. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation;

b. Physical, sexual, and psychological violence occurring within the general community or perpetrated by the state, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, traff icking in women and forced prostitution (United Nations, 1993).

Gender outcomes are the result of a policy or strategy or development intervention and the implications of those outcomes for women, men, girls and/or boys. The outcomes may be positive, in terms of more gender equality or they may be negative.

The word ‘patriarchy’ literally means the rule of the father or the ‘patriarch’. Originally, it was used to describe a specific type of ‘male-dominated family’ a large household that included women, junior men, children, slaves and domestic servants all under the rule of one dominant man. Now it is used more generally to refer to male domination and the power relationships by which men dominate women. Patriarchy is a social system in which men and boys are considered superior, are valued more highly and have more rights and more control over resources and decision making than girls and women. In a patriarchal society, women are kept subordinate in a number of ways. Patriarchal structures have existed across time and in many different cultures.